15 Minutes

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Monkey dust, a term that has seeped into the public consciousness with alarming reports and shocking incidents, represents a grave issue that intertwines with the fabric of addiction, societal neglect, and the desperate search for escapism.

Monkey dust use affects communities through increased crime rates, hospital admissions, and a general sense of insecurity amongst the populace. Statistics show surges in monkey dust-related incidents that tax not only health services but also law enforcement agencies.

Understanding monkey dust effects and side effects is crucial. The potential for monkey dust to kill is real, with the risk of lethal overdose looming large for its users. As efforts continue to combat this epidemic, we will cover everything from what monkey dust is, to treatment options for addiction.

Monkey dust is a psychoactive substance. It is a synthetic drug, (often in the form of a white powder) known scientifically as MDPV (Methylenedioxypyrovalerone), and falls under the broader category of synthetic cathinones, substances that mimic the effects of naturally occurring stimulant drugs. Often likened to bath salts, a term that broadly describes a range of synthetic drugs, monkey dust is a stimulant drug that has caused significant alarm due to its association with unpredictable and often violent behaviour among its users.

The drug has particularly garnered attention in regions like Stoke on Trent, where there exists an epidemic linked to the surge in monkey dust use. As a Class B drug in the UK, its legal ramifications add further challenges to those struggling with addiction. The allure of monkey dust lies in its potency and the fact that it is marketed as a cheaper alternative to other illicit drugs, making it accessible to a wider demographic, especially those in economically disadvantaged areas.

Monkey dust users often seek out the white powder for its reported effects, which include:

  • The powerful rush it provides
  • A euphoric state that can include feelings of invincibility and extreme energy
  • Increased alertness
  • Elevated mood

The slang term “zombie dust”  has also been used to describe monkey dust. This likely is a reference to a disconnection from reality, irrational behaviour and an increased propensity for violence and self-harm – effects which the drug produces in its users.

Individuals most at risk of monkey dust addiction include those already struggling with other forms of drug addiction or those with underlying mental health issues. Below is a list of the most common risk factors linked to monkey dust abuse:

Young adults and adolescents: Evidence suggests that young adults and adolescents are particularly susceptible to experimenting with and developing addictions to novel psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cathinones like monkey dust. This age group, typically ranging from late teens through twenties, is often characterised by a propensity for risk-taking behaviours and a desire for new experiences, which can lead to experimentation with various substances. The relative affordability and accessibility of monkey dust, combined with its reputation for producing intense highs, make it especially appealing to this demographic.

Influence of socioeconomic factors: Socioeconomic factors play a crucial role in the likelihood of developing an addiction to substances like monkey dust. Individuals in economically disadvantaged areas or those facing significant socioeconomic stressors may turn to monkey dust as a form of escapism or due to its low cost compared to other recreational drugs. 

Mental health considerations: Mental health issues can also influence the likelihood of substance abuse and addiction among various age groups. Young people dealing with undiagnosed or untreated mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may use substances like monkey dust to self-medicate or alleviate their symptoms. This demographic is at a heightened risk of developing substance use disorders due to mental health challenges and substance abuse.

Educational and awareness efforts: Recognizing the demographics most at risk for monkey dust addiction underscores the importance of targeted educational and prevention efforts. Schools, universities, and community programs can play a pivotal role in raising awareness about the dangers of synthetic drugs and providing support and resources for at-risk individuals. Early intervention and education are key to preventing experimentation that could lead to addiction.

Monkey dust use has led to a surge in hospital admissions, crime, and anti-social behaviour, placing additional strain on law enforcement and healthcare systems. Efforts to combat the monkey dust epidemic have included public awareness campaigns, law enforcement initiatives, and the exploration of treatment options for those affected by addiction. However, the synthetic nature of monkey dust, coupled with its classification as a new psychoactive substance, complicates efforts to regulate its use and address the root causes of its popularity.

The alarming rise in monkey dust’s popularity in the UK can be attributed to several key factors. Its accessibility on the black market and through illicit online channels has made it readily available to a broad audience, from seasoned drug users to curious experimenters. Additionally, its relatively low cost compared to other illicit drugs makes it an attractive option for individuals who are price-sensitive or facing financial hardship.

Monkey dust’s classification under new psychoactive substances have made it challenging for authorities to regulate and control. Initially developed as a research chemical and sold as a legal high under the guise of plant food or bath salts, the UK government has since taken steps to ban the substance. However, its continued prevalence and the growing number of hospital admissions, incidents of crime and anti-social behaviour, and even fatalities linked to monkey dust use remind of the urgent need for effective intervention strategies.

The following information highlights the challenges and concerns associated with monkey dust in communities, particularly in Stoke-on-Trent, and the ongoing efforts by authorities to address its impact:

  • Monkey dust, or MDPHP, has been a concern in Stoke-on-Trent since at least 2013, with the area being described as the monkey dust capital of the UK due to its prevalence there. The drug is known for its affordability, costing as little as £2 for a hit, which contributes to its widespread use among various demographics, including the vulnerable and economically disadvantaged.
  • The UK government is considering reclassifying monkey dust from a Class B to a Class A drug due to its association with violent behaviours and health risks such as hallucinations, psychosis, and involuntary body movements. This reclassification could lead to life sentences for those caught supplying the drug.
  • Efforts to combat the effects of monkey dust in communities include a dedicated operation by Staffordshire Police aimed at disrupting its supply and safeguarding vulnerable individuals from associated anti-social behaviour and criminality. There’s also a push for better access to mental health treatment and increased support for those using monkey dust, recognizing that many users are facing multiple disadvantages.

Researchers and experts from Staffordshire University are working alongside Staffordshire Police and Stoke-on-Trent City Council (where the drug is particularly prevalent) to improve support for users and understand the substance’s composition and impact on the community. As part of the National Drug Strategy, Stoke-on-Trent City Council has received significant funding to enhance drug and alcohol treatment services, highlighting a multi agency approach to tackle the issue.

This section goes through the categories of symptoms associated with monkey dust addiction, showing the influence this substance can have on users.

Physical symptoms: 

  • A powerful rush, likened to the euphoria associated with stimulants like cocaine and amphetamines
  • Increased heart rate
  • Heart problems
  • Elevated body temperature
  • In rare cases, fatal overdoses

Psychological symptoms: 

  • Severe paranoia
  • Hallucinations
  • An unwarranted sense of superhuman strength
  • Drastically alteration of an individual’s perception of reality

The influence of monkey dust on serotonin levels may be a contributing factor to these intense psychological disturbances.

Behavioural symptoms: 

  • Compulsion to use despite understanding the side effects
  • Persistence in seeking out the drug
  • Engaging in risky activities under influence 
  • Withdrawal from social interactions
  • Neglect of responsibilities
  • Deterioration in personal relationships and professional obligations
  • Dangerous and erratic behaviour while on the drug

Here, we’ll debunk some of the most common myths surrounding monkey dust addiction, drawing on a range of sources to present a clearer picture of the realities of this drug.

Myth 1: Monkey dust gives users superhuman strength

One of the most sensationalised claims about monkey dust is that it grants users superhuman strength. While the drug can lead to heightened aggression and a reduced perception of pain, attributing these effects to “superhuman” abilities is a gross exaggeration. This myth likely stems from isolated incidents of extreme behaviour, but these are more accurately attributed to the drug’s ability to induce severe paranoia and hallucinations, rather than any enhancement of physical strength.

Myth 2: Addiction is solely a moral failing

There’s a persistent myth that substance addiction, including to monkey dust, is a moral failing or a sign of weak character. This view overlooks the complex interplay of biological, environmental, and psychological factors that contribute to addiction. Monkey dust’s highly addictive nature is rooted in its chemical properties, which can alter brain function and lead to dependency. Addiction is a medical condition, not a moral judgement.

Myth 3: Monkey dust Is predominantly a recreational drug

While some users may initially try monkey dust out of curiosity or for recreational purposes, its use often correlates with significant social and economic challenges. Stoke-on-Trent, known for its high prevalence of monkey dust usage, is also characterised by economic deprivation and high levels of poverty. The drug’s low cost and the lack of effective treatment options make it a more appealing choice for individuals struggling with these issues, rather than purely for recreation.

Myth 4: There are effective treatment medications for monkey dust addiction

Currently, there is no medication specifically approved to treat addiction to synthetic cathinones like monkey dust. Treatment primarily focuses on supportive care and addressing the psychological aspects of addiction through counseling and therapy. The myth that there is a straightforward medical treatment for monkey dust addiction undermines the challenges in treating substance abuse disorders, emphasizing the need for comprehensive and multi-faceted treatment approaches.

Myth 5: Monkey dust addiction Is an isolated problem

The portrayal of monkey dust addiction as a problem isolated to certain communities or demographics ignores the broader context of substance abuse and the factors that contribute to it. Addiction knows no social, economic, or geographic boundaries. The issues related to monkey dust in Stoke-on-Trent highlight a larger pattern of substance abuse driven by social inequality, mental health issues, and the availability of synthetic drugs. Addressing these root causes is essential for any effective response to the monkey dust epidemic.

Untreated monkey dust addiction poses significant risks, affecting various aspects of an individual’s life and health. The consequences of not addressing this addiction can be severe, impacting physical health, mental well-being, social relationships, and the ability to function in daily life.

Physical health risks: The physical repercussions of prolonged monkey dust use are alarming. Users may experience a range of serious health issues, including cardiovascular problems such as:

  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure
  • Heart attacks and strokes
  • Hyperthermia
  • Dangerously high body temperatures
  • Dehydration 
  • Kidney failure

Chronic use exacerbates these risks, potentially leading to long-term damage to the heart and other organs.

Mental and psychological effects: Monkey dust is notorious for its severe psychological effects. High doses and prolonged use can induce psychosis, characterised by hallucinations, severe paranoia, and delusions. These symptoms can persist long after drug use has ceased, sometimes leading to long-term psychiatric conditions. Users may also experience increased anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts, significantly impairing their mental health and quality of life.

Social and behavioural consequences: Addiction to monkey dust can devastate social relationships and lead to behavioural changes that alienate friends and family. The drug’s effects on judgement and impulse control may result in aggressive or violent behaviour, legal problems, or involvement in criminal activities. The loss of social support further complicates recovery efforts, as isolation can exacerbate mental health issues and discourage seeking treatment.

Economic impact and homelessness: The financial burden of sustaining a drug addiction can be overwhelming. Individuals may deplete their savings, lose their jobs, or engage in illegal activities to fund their addiction, leading to a cycle of poverty and dependence. In severe cases, this downward spiral can result in homelessness, exposing individuals to further risks and complicating their ability to recover.

Treatment challenges: One of the most significant dangers of not treating monkey dust addiction is the difficulty in overcoming dependence on the drug. Withdrawal symptoms can be intense, including fatigue, depression, and intense cravings, making it challenging to quit without professional help. The lack of specific medications for treating synthetic cathinone addiction means that recovery often requires a comprehensive approach, including detoxification, counselling, and support groups, to address the physical and psychological aspects of addiction.

Detoxification: The initial, critical phase of recovery, aiming to safely navigate the withdrawal symptoms, which can range from physical manifestations like nausea and heart palpitations to psychological effects such as extreme paranoia and anxiety. The withdrawal experience can start within days after the last use, highlighting the need for medical oversight to mitigate potential complications.

Inpatient detox: This offers a controlled environment where medical professionals can closely monitor the detox process. This setting ensures any severe withdrawal symptoms or complications are promptly addressed. The structure of residential rehab also provides a drug-free environment, significantly reducing relapse risks during the vulnerable detox phase.

Residential rehab facilities: These integrate pharmacological support to alleviate withdrawal symptoms and curb cravings, alongside psychological support to address the underlying causes of addiction. This comprehensive approach is vital, considering the severe and multifaceted impact of monkey dust, which includes potential for lethal overdose, aggressive behaviour, and significant mental health implications.

Ongoing therapy and support: These are crucial for long-term recovery, addressing not just the physical but also the psychological and social aspects of drug addiction. Treatment plans often incorporate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing, and group support, offering a rounded approach to rehabilitation and reintegration into society.

Use of medication in the treatment of monkey dust addiction

Unlike some other substance dependencies, such as opioid or alcohol addiction, where medication-assisted treatment (MAT) has established efficacy, the pharmacological approach to treating monkey dust addiction is less straightforward and still under exploration.

When considering medication for treatment, the aim is to alleviate withdrawal symptoms, reduce cravings, and address any co-occurring mental health disorders that might be present.

Here are some facts about MAT for monkey dust addiction:

Lack of specific medications: As of now, there are no medications specifically approved for the treatment of addiction to synthetic cathinones like monkey dust. The unique and varied chemical structures of these substances make developing targeted medications challenging. 

Symptomatic treatment: In the absence of specific pharmacotherapy for monkey dust addiction, treatment efforts may focus on symptomatic relief during withdrawal and recovery. For example, antidepressants may be used to manage depression symptoms that often accompany withdrawal, while antipsychotic medications can help control psychosis or severe agitation. Anxiety, a common withdrawal symptom, might be managed with anti-anxiety medications, although care must be taken to avoid potential abuse.

Luxury rehab offers a superior approach to overcoming monkey dust addiction, distinguished not just by its high-end amenities but by the comprehensive and personalised care it provides. Unlike traditional rehab facilities, luxury rehabs such as The Balance are designed to offer an environment that significantly enhances recovery, focusing on removing obstacles and distractions to ensure patients can dedicate their full attention to overcoming addiction.

These upscale facilities understand the complexities of drug addiction, particularly the challenges presented by substances like monkey dust. By offering personalised treatment in a serene and comfortable setting, luxury rehabs meet clients where they are, providing an environment conducive to healing both the body and mind. This includes addressing the negative effects of dust use and ensuring that patients have access to a variety of treatments beyond conventional methods, such as medication-assisted therapy, behavioural therapy, and holistic treatments like yoga or acupuncture.

Key to the success of luxury rehabs is their ability to offer greater anonymity and privacy, a crucial consideration for individuals concerned about the social stigma associated with drug addiction treatment. Many luxury rehabs are situated in remote locations, with stringent security measures to ensure the privacy of their clients, making them an attractive option for business executives, celebrities, and anyone who values discretion in their recovery process.

Moreover, luxury rehabs boast a low patient-to-staff ratio, ensuring that each patient receives one-on-one attention and care tailored to their specific needs. This personalised approach extends to the treatment plan, which is developed based on a thorough assessment of the patient’s substance use patterns, mental health, physical condition, and other relevant factors. The flexibility of treatment plans allows for adjustments as needed, ensuring the most effective path to recovery.

The value which luxury rehabs provide in terms of recovery success rates, personalised care, and the quality of amenities make it a worthwhile investment for those seeking to escape the monkey dust addiction. With options like dual diagnosis treatment, and even the ability to maintain professional obligations during care, luxury rehab presents a well-rounded solution tailored to the unique needs and lifestyles of its clients.



The Balance RehabClinic is a leading provider of luxury addiction and mental health treatment for affluent individuals and their families, offering a blend of innovative science and holistic methods with unparalleled individualised care.


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